Photovoltaic (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting sunlight into direct current electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect.
The photovoltaic effect is the creation of voltage or electric current in a material upon exposure to light.
The standard photovoltaic effect is directly related to the photoelectric effect, though they are different processes. When the sunlight or any other light is incident upon a material surface, the electrons present in the valence band absorb energy and, being excited, jump to the conduction band and become free. That process leads to the flow of electrons; which is called electric current.
A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).
The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source.
A grid-tied inverter is a power inverter that converts direct current (DC) electricity into alternating current (AC) with an ability to synchronize to interface with a utility line. Its applications are converting DC sources such as solar panels into AC for tying with the grid.
Residences and businesses that have a grid-tied electrical system are permitted in many countries to sell their energy to the utility grid. Electricity delivered to the grid can be compensated in several ways. The most attractive policy is a feed-in tariff, where the producer is paid for every kilowatt-hour delivered to the grid by a special tariff based on a contract with distribution company or other power authority.
It is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours. If the energy is being transmitted or used at a constant rate (power) over a period of time, the total energy in kilowatt-hours is the product of the power in kilowatts and the time in hours. The kilowatt-hour is commonly used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities.
Loss of electricity due to the grid failure and electric current outage.
It is a power inverter that converts direct current (DC) electricity into alternating current (AC) without the need to synchronize to interface with a utility line. Its applications could include as an extra feature to control the batteries charging (charge controller), if storage is needed.
A deep-cycle battery is a lead-acid battery designed to be regularly deeply discharged using most of its capacity. In contrast, starter batteries (e.g. most automotive batteries) are designed to deliver short, high-current bursts for cranking the engine, thus frequently discharging only a small part of their capacity. While a deep-cycle battery can be used as a starting battery, the lower “cranking amps” imply that an oversized battery may be required.
A deep-cycle battery is designed to discharge between 45% and 75% of its capacity, depending on the manufacturer and the construction of the battery. Although these batteries can be cycled down to 20% charge, the best lifespan vs. cost method is to keep the average cycle at about 45% discharge. There is a direct correlation between the depth of discharge of the battery, and the number of charge and discharge cycles it can perform.
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